Teaching Furniture, Accessibility and Equipment Mounting


Furniture in the teaching environment has evolved over the years and the aim is always to:
  • improve ergonomics and accessibility for presenters;
  • integrate the technologies required to support teaching and learning;
  • ensure technology is secure and supportable.
Presenter furniture comes in a variety of shapes and sizes, but typically conforms to a few key varieties, primarily due to the typical requirements of academic staff as well as the technology to support them.
Furniture is available as both off-the-shelf solutions (of which there is a vast selection to choose from) or custom designed; and can be a combination of both when augmented by a trusted joiner or furniture supplier to meet an organisation's preferred in-house style.
Either option is a reasonable approach, provided that the furniture is:
  • able to meet functional requirements of both academic and technology design, and support staff;
  • able to meet and preferably exceed national accessibility requirements;
  • durable, robust and low-maintenance;
  • safe and ergonomic to use, meeting all local safety requirements;
  • cost-effective and able to be rolled out at scale;
  • consistent in both it’s user facing aspects (e.g. table-top layout), as well as support areas (e.g. rack and equipment housing areas) across the learning space fleet;
  • available in two or more colour choices to support aesthetic decisions of project teams without heavy customisation on a per-build basis;
  • contributing to improving the learning experience when compared to the previously installed teaching furniture.

Key Stakeholders

The stakeholders involved in the design and selection of teaching furniture are:
Presenters and educational designers:
  • needs must be considered as they are the primary users of teaching furniture;
  • are the people using the furniture and operating the technology;
  • want to ensure an improved learning experience and their feedback channels can provide input to ensure proposed solutions are suitable.
Organisational technology support, design and project managers:
  • are responsible for both defining and refining functional requirements to and with other key stakeholders;
  • are responsible for considering the available options and recommending the preferred solution;
  • need to budget appropriately for the design and installation of AV systems.
Facilities management and capital projects teams‌:
  • require finished spaces which are fit-for-purpose;
  • are responsible for the functional and aesthetic look and feel of the space (which can be via internal or engaged architects);
  • must meet the appropriate local institution, national and international standards;
  • need to fit solutions within each organisation’s targets for capital and maintenance costs, under time-based constraints.

Teaching Furniture Types

Teaching Lectern

“Teaching Lectern” or simply “Lectern” is a term used in Australia and New Zealand to describe the “all-in-one” furniture that provides a physical location for the orchestration of teaching and learning through a variety of technologies, including written and printed materials, digital content, image capture and display. These pieces of furniture are sometimes referred to by other names such as “presenter station”, “teaching desk”, “touchdown point” or “teacher workstation” to denote differing sizes and affordances, however ultimately all serve the same function.
Lecterns are typically the central location for the majority of user-facing presentation equipment, plus what's required for the control of input sources, audio, display and environment systems. They often also include the rack(s) containing the active infrastructure equipment required within a space - for reasons of convenience, consolidation and system simplification.
It is common for stakeholders to request that teaching furniture be moved away to the side, diminished in size or removed completely, which may have a drastic impact on the availability of certain functionality considered core to the needs of the majority of presenters. ‘Functional Requirements for Teaching Furniture’ can be found in the next section, and any attempt to move, downsize or remove a presenter station should ensure all of these requirements are considered and signed off.

Podium/Executive Lectern

‘Podium Lectern’ is a term that is often used to describe a cut-down and more traditional piece of raised presenter furniture, often preferred in formal/event spaces, and other spaces where a lighter technology footprint is suitable to cater for user requirements.
Podium lecterns typically provide less desktop real-estate for teaching materials, and often make the accessibility and ergonomic use of technology such as table-mounted document cameras more difficult, or simply impractical.
As there is a trade-off between form and functionality, podium lecterns are generally the preferred option in situations where a person is simply addressing the audience verbally, with no need for an extensive variety of visual aids.

Wet Lab Furniture

Due to the nature of laboratory design, often with Physical Containment (PC1 or PC2) requirements, teaching furniture is often a standalone piece of joinery or integrated with other furniture, for example at the end of a row of student benches.
Standard lecterns should be used and modified as required wherever possible to save on design costs, customisation and to maintain familiarity for academics and technicians. However, it is worth noting that materials such as MDF and other forms of particle board (or even plywood, unless of the marine variety) often do not fare well over time in these spaces, where an increased level of background moisture is present.
Designs must adhere to laboratory standards, which often means that active and passive AV equipment and ports (including GPOs) must be mounted a certain height (e.g. 300mm) above table tops to avoid being impacted by spills.
Wet labs often include working with chemicals and liquid or gas substances that are detrimental to active equipment. Ensuring rack equipment is housed in a non-perforated, well-ventilated space that is protected from spills and substances is recommended. Where user-facing equipment must be provided (e.g. resident computer), a small “access flap” made of Perspex can be allowed for as an effective splash barrier. Where direct access to the computer is not required, provision of USB ports with some form of water resistance is recommended.
PC2 laboratories have very strict rules and procedures around people and equipment entering and exiting the space. Consult with facilities management, compliance personnel and faculty staff early in the design phase to ensure the AV and teaching furniture design adheres to the requirements of the lab. Ensure the best decision is reached and is a balance of functionality for teaching and support staff, practicality, and the maintenance of equipment warranties.

Functional Requirements for Teaching Furniture

Teaching Furniture Design Checklist

Any design of teaching furniture should ensure that the following requirements are satisfied where the equipment is specified by an organisation.
  • dedicated location for preview or confidence display
    • ability for ergonomic use of interactive display(s)
  • dedicated location for the following within “reach zone” of the presenter:
    • physical presentation materials, including notes and hand-writing
    • the presenter’s personal possessions
    • space for a laptop or device in reach of input cable and power
    • control system interface
    • resident computer keyboard and mouse
    • document camera
    • fixed presenter microphone(s)
    • wireless microphone charging station
    • small task light
    • wireless clicker devices and presentation aides
    • user-facing devices such as:
      • USB inputs
      • General Power Outlets (GPOs)
      • physical media playback devices (e.g. BD, DVD)
    • furniture must meet (minimum) or exceed (best practice) building code requirements for accessibility, including:
      • egress - 800mm approach and 1500mm x 1500mm “stage”
      • furniture height and reach - see best practice and minimum
      • wall-mounted control interface height - 900mm-1100mm
    • AV racks meet the ‘Minimum Design Considerations for Audiovisual Equipment Racks’ checklist from AVIXA F502-01
      • all active equipment must have the following access for maintenance:
        • 2 sided - front and rear (minimum) or
        • 3 sided - front, rear and side (best practice)
        • egress requirement met for serviceable equipment
        • ventilation (passive and/or active) must ensure all active equipment is kept within it’s manufacturer recommended operating temperatures.
Note: equipment is not necessarily required to be mounted on the presenter station.

Accessibility Standards and Design Considerations

The standards and building codes applicable to the design of accessibility and mobility requirements within educational spaces are as below. Responsibility for achieving provisions under the following standards is the domain of facilities management and capital projects teams, and where engaged, project accessibility specialists and consultants.
Technology managers and designers need to make themselves aware of key elements pertaining specifically to furniture and space design so that they may be well equipped to coordinate and collaborate with key stakeholders during new fit-outs and refurbishments.
As the basic requirement is always to provide equitable access, the goal must be to provide clear and measurable amenity to all. Legislation and the relevant national building codes define a minimum provision and institutions may choose to offer a higher level of coverage. Building code requirements differ between Australia and New Zealand.
AS1428.1 (Australia)
Design for access and mobility
Part 1: Communication for people who are deaf or hearing impaired
NZS4121:2001 (New Zealand)
Design for Access and Mobility – Buildings and Associated Facilities
National Building Codes
National Construction Code (NCC)
New Zealand
The Building Code
All new buildings and major refurbishments must adhere to national building codes as a mandatory requirement, being the National Construction Code (NCC) in Australia, and The Building Code in New Zealand (BCNZ).
The AS1428-2009 suite of standards is the primary reference in Australia, whilst NZ4121:2001 is the primary standard in New Zealand - both refer to accessibility and mobility solutions to ensure egress is achieved to meet the associated national building codes.
Understanding and defining each specific clause, the related exemptions and potential solutions is beyond the scope of these guidelines; however, specific aspects are contained below to ensure equitable access to teaching and learning technology is enhanced in-line with the standards.
In all cases, reference must be made to local organisational building and accessibility requirements which will themselves refer to national, state and/or local legislation and standards. In many cases, organisational standards define a higher requirement than the building codes. These requirements should be seen by technology managers and design teams as the minimum level of provisions that must be met, whilst allowing the opportunity to exceed and improve upon the amenity offered to users of a space and/or building.

Universal Design Considerations for Physical Spaces

The 7 Principles of Universal Design are an excellent way to both contextualise, as well as verify what separates a good design from a poor one. Technology managers, as well as facilities management, should familiarise themselves with these principles before proceeding to address legislative requirements to optimise the outcome of design for all.

Accessibility Provisions in New Builds and Refurbishments

Building codes often only apply to new construction projects, which offer the benefit of a blank canvas to which facility planning and design can be considered holistically.
Refurbishments are commonplace within educational organisations, and often re-organise physical space in a way that may see them used for new uses for many years, if not decades.
Provisions for accessibility as well as the incorporating of universal design principles are recommended on both new builds as well as building refurbishments. Any build should be seen as an opportunity to improve educational facilities for all users of the space.

Accessible Routes and Spaces in Assembly Buildings

Accessible routes are covered in depth throughout both Australian and New Zealand standards and building codes. The number and size of wheelchair accessible spaces are an important consideration during planning and design of new facilities, or during major refurbishments.
Educational spaces should be available and accessible to all. NZ4121 Part 12 “Places of Assembly, Entertainment and Recreation” contains concise and specific statements regarding this:
“12.1 General - Provision shall be made to accommodate people with disabilities in rooms and areas used for meetings, entertainment, assembly and recreation. In all cases this provision shall be on an accessible route
12.2 Places of assembly and entertainment - People with disabilities shall be able to be seated as part of an audience. They shall be able to speak, lecture or entertain an audience from the main stage of a place of assembly or entertainment and have access to all backstage facilities including performers changing areas
12.2.3 As a speaker or performer - Ramp access shall be provided to podium or stage areas. Accessible facilities shall also be provided for artists, including changing areas, toilet, showers and the green room. An accessible route shall be provided from these facilities to the audience area”
NZ4121 Clause determines the number of wheelchair spaces in a building based on audience size, regardless of fixed or flexible seating:
  1. 1.
    1-250 people; not less than two spaces,
  2. 2.
    For every 250 people or part thereof extra, add one space.
Part D3.9 of the NCC in Australia includes a requirement for the provision of wheelchair spaces that comply with AS1428.1 where fixed seating is provided in a Class 9(b) assembly building. The code states that:
"The number and grouping of wheelchair seating spaces must be in accordance with the table below:
Number of fixed seats in a room or space
Number of wheelchair seating spaces
Grouping and location
Up to 150
3 spaces
1 single space; and
1 group of 2 spaces
151 to 800
3 spaces plus 1 additional space for each additional 50 Seats or part thereof in excess of 150 seats
not less than 1 single space; and
not less than 1 group of 2 spaces; and
not more than 5 spaces in any other group
801 to 10 000
16 spaces plus 1 additional space for each additional 100 seats or part thereof in excess of 800 seats
not less than 2 single spaces; and
not less than 2 groups of 2 spaces; and
not more than 5 spaces in any other group; and
the location of spaces is to be representative of the range of seating provided
More than 10 000
108 spaces plus 1 additional space for each additional 200 seats or part thereof in excess of 10 000 seats
not less than 5 single spaces; and
not less than 5 groups of 2 spaces; and
not more than 10 spaces in any other group; and
the location of spaces is to be representative of the range of seating provided
In a cinema —
  1. 1.
    with not more than 300 seats — wheelchair seating spaces must not be located in the front row of seats; and
  2. 2.
    with more than 300 seats — not less than 75% of required wheelchair seating spaces must be located in rows other than the front row of seats.
Wheelchair seats that comply with both Australian and New Zealand (NZ4121 D3.3.2.1) standards are identified as 800mm wide by 1300mm deep.

Wheelchair Spaces in the Compliant Viewing Area

AS1428.1 Part 18.1 includes further provisions that wheelchair seating spaces be:
  1. 1.
    Adjacent to, and on the same level as, other seating in the row and shall be accessed by a continuous path of travel.
  2. 2.
    Located to allow lines of sight comparable to those for general viewing areas and shall not be obstructed by opaque handrails or balustrades.
Technology managers and designers should work with project teams and architects to ensure that all wheelchair spaces fall within the compliant viewing area of any venue.

Circulation Space and Turning Circles

Design of furniture should be aimed at catering for the widest range of people. Clause 6 of AS1428.2 “Continuous Accessible Paths of Travel” outlines minimum requirements for width, approach and turning circles for wheelchairs. In summary, the provisions, when applied to learning spaces, ensure that people using wheelchairs can:
  • approach the teaching/learning furniture
  • turn 90 degrees to face the teaching furniture, and/or the audience;
  • be stationary in the presenter-facing side of a lectern;
  • turn >90-180 degrees to move away from the furniture.
D3.3.4.2 of NZ4121 also refers to a full 360 degree turning circle of 1950mm x 1950mm for motorised scooters.
The AETM recommends that a clear path with a minimum of 1200mm width, an approach of 2070mm and turning circle of 1540mm in the presenter area of the teaching furniture be met. Immediately adjacent to the presenter furniture, a space of 1950mm x 1950mm should be allowed for the maneuvering of motorised scooters, which are becoming more common.
There is typically ample room for approach and path width, though this should always be checked. Space under a compliantly designed piece of furniture can be included in turning circle width, which can allow for a reduced depth between the presenter-side of the lectern and the nearest obstruction, but this should be used only as required and is dependent on lectern design.

Teaching Furniture Height and Reach

Using a piece of furniture is difficult if it is not at the correct height. Clause 24.1 of AS1428.2 covers “Tables, Counters and Worktops” and includes dimensions for clear space:
NZ4212 11.2.2 identifies a simpler set of measurements that can be used to determine minimum space allowances. This section also refers to 1200mm of clear ground space, which when combined with the underfloor space adds up to 1540mm (see previous section for further detail).
Current furniture height accessibility standards aim to address the needs of people who use wheelchairs, but do not specifically consider persons of smaller or larger stature. Whilst considering lectern design, there is also an opportunity to offer further flexibility in allowing the option of standing or sitting whilst using the teaching furniture.
The AETM recommends teaching furniture be designed for maximum flexibility whilst meeting accessibility requirements:
best practice:
  • fully adjustable worktop ranging from 750mm (sitting height) to 1100mm (standing height) above finished floor
  • push-button control to minimise physical effort required for adjustment
  • leg space is sufficient to meet AS1428.2 (see figure above)
  • active equipment racking to meet the above provisions to extend access to service technicians
  • all user-required equipment to be within maximum horizontal reach zones (see figure 26 from AS1428.2 below, or Figure D13 of NZ4121)
  • entire worktop or portion to meet AS1428.2 24.1.1(a) - 850mm +/- 20mm above finished floor
  • height of clearance beneath furniture to meet AS1428.2 24.1.1 (b) - 820mm +/- 20mm above finished floor
  • all user-required equipment to be within maximum horizontal reach zones (see figure 26 from AS1428.2 below)

Wall-Mounted Control Interface Height

Whilst there are a variety of standard mounting heights referenced in accessibility standards, the most appropriate analogue of an AV user control interface is a light switch located on an accessible path of travel, referenced in AS1428.1 Clause 14.1 and NZ4121 Clause 4.11.4/4.11.5.
Wall-mounted control points (e.g. touch panels, push-button controllers, room booking panels, switches etc.) are to be mounted between 900mm – 1100mm* above the finished floor level (AFFL), and 500mm or more away from any internal room corners, to ensure they can be easily seen and operated by the widest range of users possible.
*NZ4121 allows up to 1200mm AFFL, with a preferred height of 1000mm AFFL.

Access for Maintenance

Audiovisual equipment in professional use needs to be accessible for routine maintenance operations and also for emergency break-fix should failure or misoperation occur during a session.
Professional equipment typically has operational controls and mounting screws at the front, while power and signal interconnection is made at the rear.
The following access provisions should be provided for active equipment and interconnecting cabling:
best practice:
  • Provide access to the front, rear and one side of active equipment.
  • Egress to all active equipment should be provided with a 1500 x 1500 space in front to allow for 180 degree turning of wheelchairs and other mobility support devices.
  • Provide access to the front and rear of active equipment.
  • 1000mm distance between rack edge and nearest obstruction to ensure space for technicians to work comfortably and safely, including side-access for persons in wheelchairs.
If audiovisual equipment such as cameras, projectors and speakers are to be fitted to a space without removable ceiling elements (e.g. ceiling tiles) in required locations, tech support staff from the organisation must be consulted at design development stage to determine the type and location of access hatches required to mount and service this equipment and associated cabling.

Provision for Rack Mounted Equipment

Lockable, well-ventilated, purpose-designed space must be reserved for the equipment which comprises the audio, video, control and/or lighting sub systems of a facility. Provision must also be made for power, data and other building services to access this rack space and for fitment and maintenance of interconnecting signal cables.
The provisioning of an equipment rack system to house individual system components and interconnecting cables is required, ensuring that an audiovisual system is installed in a professional, operational and serviceable manner.
There are a variety of design considerations associated with the planning and installation of equipment racking and equipment racking can come in a variety of appropriate forms, depending on the situation and/or preference of an organisation.

Equipment Rack Design Checklist

AVIXA F502-02 provides a comprehensive reference for the planning, design and construction of AV equipment racks.
The AETM endorses the use of AVIXA ‘Minimum Design Considerations for Audiovisual Equipment Racks’ (from AVIXA F502.2 Standard) as a best practice requirement for the planning of equipment racks, which should begin during the project design phase and be implemented in conjunction with a fully-developed project documentation package.
Design decisions that should be documented to achieve an agreed-upon outcome prior to building the rack include:
  • fixed installation or mobile/portable rack – selection of the rack type;*
  • environmental control of the installation location and resultant thermal management performance requirements of the rack;*
  • security requirements;*
  • accessibility of user-accessible AV equipment within the rack and ergonomics;*
  • overall layout of AV equipment within the rack (production of a rack elevation drawing) including:
    • thermal management and weight distribution considerations;*
    • quantity of equipment racks (single/multiple rack installations);*
    • entry/connection method for site cabling;*
    • inter-connection method for cabling in multiple rack installations;*
    • mains voltage power supply delivery arrangements;*
    • earthing (grounding) and bonding requirements;*
    • other environmental control factors, such as seismic considerations;
  • the intended final installation location of the rack*;
  • spatial considerations and the relationship to the overall physical size of the rack, having regard to access requirements*;
  • acoustic sensitivity of the installation location and resultant acoustic performance requirements of the rack.
NOTE: At a minimum, a design package provided to users of the AVIXA F502.1 standard should include all items marked with an asterisk (*) above.


Active equipment generates significant heat when in operation and excessive operating temperatures dramatically affect system reliability and reduce service life.
Equipment that is mounted with poor or no ventilation is likely to exceed recommended and maximum manufacturer’s operating temperature, resulting in potential impact to warranty.
All equipment must be installed with appropriate ventilation in order to fully comply with the recommended manufacturer’s operating temperatures at all times.
A rack space within enclosed joinery must be ventilated with a minimum provision to draw in fresh air (typically at the bottom) and exhaust hot air (usually from the top). Vents should be fitted with appropriate mesh to render them vermin proof and prevent the insertion of foreign objects. Often forced air ventilation will be required, typically using low voltage fans which can operate at very low noise levels, necessary to achieve acoustic standards for permissible background noise.

Hardware Security

Secure access should be provided to only those responsible for the service and maintenance of audiovisual technology and its associated services (e.g. electrical, comms, lighting) in order to prevent unnecessary tampering when installed within shared spaces.
Swipe card/electronic access systems are best practice to manage the governance of access to communications and AV rack rooms, as they:
  • can be integrated with staff and contractor cards;
  • can be managed using access groups and hierarchies;
  • can be managed centrally, including simple and effective addition/removal of users;
  • do not require physical keys which are unable to be tracked easily.
Master key systems are a suitable minimum approach for keyed access to rack rooms, joinery, AV racks and padlocks that are used to secure AV equipment. They are best managed with campus locksmith/security teams which can ensure building management have access to areas that may be required for maintenance.
Keyed-alike systems for smaller peripherals are typically installed as a deterrent to theft, and are recommended to be deployed for valuable items that must be user-facing, and which are not bolted down. A management and accountability system limiting the distribution of such keys to only planning and operational staff should be implemented. When procuring peripheral locks, avoid ordering additional keys beyond the staff requirement and a small provision of spares to minimise key availability, surplus and waste.

General Provisions for Equipment

Unless required to be portable when in use, all equipment shall be firmly secured to minimise the possibility of unauthorised removal. Fastenings and supports shall be adequate to support the load applied with a safety factor of three times the actual weight.
All racks, housings and installed or bench-top equipment must be level, plumb and square. Sharp edges and corners that could cause personal injury should always be avoided.
Consideration shall be given not only to access and operational efficiency but also to overall aesthetic factors in regard to installed equipment and housings.

Mounting Behind Displays

Many smaller teaching and meeting spaces are deployed without a local audiovisual rack, often due to requiring minimal equipment. These systems require simple and effective security, access and ventilation to maintain operating temperatures.
Slide out rack shelves are a suitable solution for situations where a small number of components are required to fit behind a display, or where nearby joinery or racking is not available. Slide-out racks are superior to simply wall-mounting equipment as they allow for simple serviceability of equipment by a single support technician, including equipment and cable replacement as well as providing a secure mounting point for locking devices.
The use of pull out display mounting brackets are a suitable alternative for smaller displays and typical of flat-panel video wall arrays, or where access is limited from the side. For larger displays, one or more slide out brackets is preferred to avoid the need to move heavy objects and place a field technician or any surrounding personnel or building elements in any danger. Where pull-out mounting brackets are the only option, like standard mounts, they should be engineered to support 3x the required weight capacity. In this scenario a separate AV rack for active gear, and some simpler pop-out leg mechanisms to provide a simple tilt to access cable inputs may be a safer option.
In all cases, care must be taken to ensure that the mounting device does not interfere with a display mounting solution or electrical/communications services that may also be mounted behind the display. Equipment, as well as power and data outlets, should be mounted in a location that allows simple access by support technicians whilst obscuring their view from passers-by.
The use of IECs with flat heads, as well as Telecommunications (data) Outlets (TOs) with angled RJ45 connections is best practice to ensure equipment can be easily serviced and cable bend radii are adhered to.
Where serviceable access is unable to be achieved with the above recommendations, a piece of joinery is a good option to house a suitable sized rack for the required equipment and services.

Wall-Mounted Joinery

There are many options available to house active equipment in a neat and small piece of joinery, suitable for mounting on a wall and/or under a display. These pieces of joinery are often found in meeting rooms, student pods in learning spaces and small seminar rooms lacking a standard lectern.
Off-the-shelf units can be found and many AETM member organisations have developed custom variations which can be shared amongst members at their discretion to minimise time and effort, preventing lengthy repeat design work.
Some useful features include:
  • fold-down racks, often affording 4-8RU of vertically-mounted equipment racking
  • an area dedicated to power, data and connectivity of AV signals
  • passive ventilation slots or mounting solutions for active ventilation fans
  • access slots for user-facing gear such as resident computers
  • anchoring points for securing devices with peripheral locks
  • a lock which can be fitted for use with a master key system
  • a shallow top to provide a small amount of space for active user-facing equipment
  • space for surface-mounted or flush-mounted cable solutions (e.g. table boxes, connectivity rails (for power, HDMI, pass-through grommets)
  • fully or semi-open back or open section designs to allow simple pass-through of cables between AV racks, field devices and nearby displays.
Wall-mounted joinery intended to be used as teaching furniture should be validated against the Functional Requirements for Teaching Furniture checklist. It is often unsuitable as an ergonomic solution where no audience-facing location for laptop devices has been provided, however these design challenges can often easily be overcome with a small portable table and/or wireless connectivity for operating a resident computer or device.

Under Table

Simple 1-3 RU shelves or specifically designed under-table brackets are suitable for the mounting of small numbers of system components under tables. Mounting of gear hard against the underside of the table should be sure to consider serviceability and prevent overheating.
Consideration must be given to ensure that any interference with users’ knees and bodies in general is avoided. Equipment must be secured neatly and firmly in place, whilst being easily serviceable for repair, replacement and cabling.
Cable umbilical pass-throughs are recommended wherever cabling runs from table to ground, with a tether in place that is shorter than the shortest cable between the two locations, in order to prevent any tension on, or damage to the cable.
Floor boxes should not have active equipment installed within them unless designed to integrate with the floor box housing (e.g. AAP plates).
Angled data outlets may be required to ensure undue force isn’t exerted on the plug or socket and that cable bend radii are correctly adhered to, both internally and externally to the floor box. A cable damaged in this way is difficult and time-consuming to fix, and will recur if the spatial design of the floor box is considered.
Last modified 6d ago